Position Statements

Position Statement #1

Integrity of Nuclear Facilities During Times of Conflict

The International Nuclear Society Council (INSC) calls on all parties to respect the integrity and well-being of nuclear facilities at all times, but especially during times of armed conflict. Military actions at nuclear facilities during the Russian invasion of Ukraine highlight the importance of ensuring the physical integrity of nuclear facilities and thereby protecting the public and plant workers from uncontrolled releases of potentially harmful radionuclides. INSC endorses International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director General Grossi’s identification of seven pillars required to ensure the safety and security of nuclear facilities. Those pillars are repeated below.1

  1. The physical integrity of the facilities – whether it is the reactors, fuel ponds or radioactive waste stores – must be maintained.
  2. All safety and security systems and equipment must be fully functional at all times.
  3. The operating staff must be able to fulfil their safety and security duties and have the capacity to make decisions free of undue pressure.
  4. There must be secure off-site power supply from the grid for all nuclear sites.
  5. There must be uninterrupted logistical supply chains and transportation to and from the sites.
  6. There must be effective on-site and off-site radiation monitoring systems and emergency preparedness and response measures.
  7. And finally, there must be reliable communications with the regulator and others.


  1. “IAEA Director General Calls for Restraint, Reiterates Need to Ensure Safety of Ukraine’s Nuclear Facilities and Their Staff,” IAEA Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi, March 2, 2022. ( )
Position Statements

Position Statement #2

INSC Position Statement on Sustainability in the Energy Sector

The concept of sustainability (in energy), rightly at the forefront of people’s concerns, is in many instances not properly defined, and therefore misused. In some people’s minds, sustainability is limited to environment protection (“green”). This is by far too short seeing.

Energy policy is to be built on three pillars: environment protection (indeed), but also economics and affordability, and security and reliability of energy supply. Each pillar is of importance to contribute to societal sustainability, a larger definition, much more in line with the original concept of Brundtland as “a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.

Depending on individual priorities, one will give more weight to one pillar over the others, but an analysis based on facts and science shows that a balance must be struck between the three. There is no silver bullet, a perfect energy source matching the three pillars all together.

Each individual energy source must be analysed with pro and cons versus the three pillars. But even more, it is the whole energy system, integrating the contribution of the different sources, which must be considered.

The INSC considers that nuclear energy, as a fully decarbonised, affordable, secure and reliable energy source, has to play a major role in a sustainable energy system.


  1. Deffrennes, M. (2022). Role of nuclear fission energy from past to future: Critical issues: Energy policy and market design, cost control, innovation and flexibility. In Fundamental Issues Critical to the Success of Nuclear Projects (pp. 3-22). Woodhead Publishing.
  2. Boucau, J. (2021). Fundamental Issues Critical to the Success of Nuclear Projects. Elsevier Science & Technology.
Position Statements Uncategorized

Position Statement #3

Small Modular Reactors

For the purpose of this International Nuclear Society Council (INSC) position statement, small modular reactors (SMRs) are defined as nuclear reactors with power outputs of 300 MWe or less per module and include both light water reactor (LWR) and non-LWR advanced reactors. While the existing nuclear power plants have been successfully suppling carbon-free electricity economically and will continue to do so for many countries in foreseeable future, the small size and modular nature of SMRs have potential to meet rapidly changing world carbon-free energy demand with improved flexibility.

The smaller size of SMRs means that most systems can be manufactured and assembled in the factory, compared to traditional LWRs, for which a larger fraction of the work must be done on the construction site. As a result of automation, factory fabrication offers an opportunity to achieve high quality, along with repeatability, which can lead to improved standardization and lower costs. SMRs have inherent safety features due to smaller reactor core size permitting reduced emergency planning zones. Thus, SMRs can be located closer to population centers, and the siting flexibility implies that energy can be supplied near the demand, minimizing investment in transmission.

The modular approach permits investment requirements to be more gradual and levelized over the years. Moreover, some SMRs operate at high temperatures and are particularly well-suited for both electricity generation and other energy applications such as process heat and hydrogen production. SMRs are designed for high operational flexibility in addition to reliability, and therefore are able to complement variable renewable energy sources and support society with clean energy.

The International Nuclear Society Council calls on all parties to recognize the near-term opportunity presented by SMRs to provide safe, reliable, clean, and affordable energy to meet the demands of society for clean energy. INSC supports advancing the R&D, testing, regulations, manufacturing capabilities and policies necessary to enable the deployment of first-of-a-kind SMRs, leading to a broad use of standardized reactors and to a possible global deployment of these technologies in the near future. INSC sees that the investment in SMRs is an additional support to the successfully operating and under construction large reactors, and it is justified by further expanding the role of nuclear energy in the world.

Related Presentation

Nuclear Energy Policy of New Administration (May 19, 2022)

Related Publication

INSC Sponsoring Meeting Report

INSC History

INSC History

Meeting Minutes

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INSC Meetings

INSC Meetings

INSC meets twice a year in conjunction with major nuclear energy meetings. INSC meetings have been held as follows:

111 Nov 1990Washington DC (USA)
216 Apr 1991Paris (France)
310 Nov 1991San Francisco (USA)
413 Apr 1992Taipei (Taiwan)
515 Nov 1992Chicago (USA)
620 Jun 1993San Diego (USA)
73 Oct 1993Toronto (Canada)
81 May 1994Sydney (Australia)
92 Oct 1994Lyon (France)
109 Apr 1995Tokyo (Japan)
1129 Oct 1995San Francisco (USA)
124 Apr 1996Vienna (Austria)
1320 Oct 1996Kobe (Japan)
1410 Apr 1997Tokyo (Japan)
1530 Sep 199Vienna (Austria)
163 May 1998Banff (Canada)
1725 Oct 1998Nice (France)
186 Jun 1999Boston (USA)
1930 Sep 1999Vienna (Austria)
2028 Apr 2000Tokyo (Japan)
2112 Nov 2000Washington DC (USA)
2220 Apr 2001Seoul (Korea)
2315 Sep 2001Paris (France)
2425 Apr 2002Tokyo (Japan)
2517 Nov 2002Washington DC (USA)
2613 Apr 2003Tokyo (Japan)
2716 Nov 2003New Orleans (USA)
2813 Jun 2004Pittsburgh (USA)
2914 Nov 2004Washington DC (USA)
3017 May 2005Seoul (Korea)
3111 Dec 2005Versailles (France)
324 Jun 200Reno (USA)
3311 Nov 2006Albuquerque (USA)
3424 June 2007Boston (USA)
3511 Nov 2007Washington DC (USA)
3608 Jun 2008Anaheim (USA)
3709 Nov 2008Reno (USA)
3810 May 2009Tokyo (Japan)
3906 Sep 2009Paris (France)
4016 Nov 2009Washington DC (USA)
4113 Jun 2010San Diego (USA)
4225 Oct 2010Cancun (Mexico)
4304 May 2011Nice (France)
4401 Nov 2011Washington DC (USA)
4526 Jun 2012Chicago (USA)
4610 Nov 2012San Diego (USA)
4726 June 2013Buenos Aires (Argentina)
4812 November 2013Washington DC (USA)
4917 April 2014Busan (ROK)
5012 November 2014Anaheim, CA (USA)
516 May 2015ICAPP 15, Nice, France
5210 November 2015Washington, DC (USA)
5319 April 2016San Francisco, CA (USA)
5427 September 2016Vienna (Austria)
5520 June 2017Mexico D.F (Mexico)
5631 October 2017Washington D.C (USA)
5710 April 2018Charlotte (USA)
5819 September 2018Vienna (Austria)
592 July 2019Buenos Aires (Argentina)
6020 November 2019Washington, D.C. (USA)
613 June 2020On-line
628 October 2020On-line
6317 April 2021On-line
6422 September 2021Vienna (Austria)
6519 May 2022On-line
6615 November 2022 Pheonix, Arizona (USA)

Cooperative Actions

Cooperative Actions

  • Information Network
    • The possibility of setting up, under the INSC umbrella, a system of exchange among member Societies of technical information, R&D recent results, and newly developed operating practices is being investigated. The system shall not duplicate existing networks.
  • Waste Disposal
    • Development of the International Council for Nuclear Waste Disposal (ICND) will receive Council support provided INSC plays an important role in its activities.
  • Pacific Nuclear Council
    • Common meetings for exchange of information and cooperative efforts are periodically organized.
  • IAEA
    • The Council is recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Non Governmental Organization, having an Observer seat at the General Conference of the Agency.
Technical Actions

Technical Actions

Safety Convention

INSC views on the peer-review system for the Safety Convention were reported to the IAEA and the Convention Parties in December 1994 (Annex X). This system can accommodate the concept of a list of experts for peer-review made by INSC from inputs by Member Societies. A proposal containing a list of experts nominated by the Member Societies was sent to the Secretary of the Nuclear Safety Convention in spring 1995. (Currently, 57 experts have been nominated by ANA, AESJ, ANS, LAS and NEST). Informative actions took place, in the 1995-96 period, to explain to some Parties and governments the purpose and scope of this proposal. 

50-Year Vision of Future Nuclear Energy

Based on the accomplishment of the first fifty years of development, new directions of nuclear energy utilization in the second fifty years were analyzed from a global standpoint and a long-term view. After more than two years of work by the 50-Year Vision Committee, under the leadership of Mr Masao Hori, INSC published the report “A VISION FOR THE SECOND FIFTY YEARS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY — Vision and Strategies”. The original version was issued in English. You can read the whole English version of the 50-Year Vision Report here in this web site. The Report is now translated/published in Korean, Japanese, Polish, Spanish, Portuguese, Hebrew and Arabic languages. INSC holds the publication copyright. 

This report represents a professional, global, and uncompromised view of those engaged in the development and utilization of nuclear power and related research all around the world:

  • professional, because it was written by technical people who belong to Nuclear Societies that take part of INSC;
  • global, because it gathers the opinion of some 50,000 people from around the world who are represented at INSC through their Nuclear Societies;
  • compromised, because it reflects no political or commercial boundaries, just the consensus of the nuclear community worldwide.

A Press Release regarding this publication was issued in April 1996 as shown in Annex XI

Enhancement of Soviet Reactors Safety

Member Societies described the activities being performed in their countries for enhancing the safety of Soviet designed reactors. Data on actions taken by different countries for improving the safety of such reactors was consolidated by the 1995-96 Secretariat. 

Young Generation Nuclear Development

The Council decided to set up a Young Generation Development Committee to prepare a statement proposal to promote the work of younger generations in the nuclear area. The statement shall take into account the opinion of the young generation entering the nuclear business. 

A Statement to the COP3 by the INSC Council issued a Statement “REDUCING GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS” (Annex XII) in October 1997 to the Third Conference of the Parties (COP3) held in Kyoto in December 1997. 

A central tenet of the COP3 was that carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels may cause changes in the earth’s climate. An objective of the Conference would be to set limits on the emissions of carbon dioxide. The Council believes that the world’s capacity for generating electricity from nuclear power must be increased substantially, if we are to meet the ambitious targets for reducing global emissions of carbon dioxide. 

A Statement to the COP4 by the INSC

The Council issued a Statement “REDUCING GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS” (Annex XIII) in November 1998 to the Fourth Conference of the Parties (COP4) held in Buenos Aires.

Continuing the initiatives taken in Kyoto, INSC presented in Buenos Aires a new statement on “REDUCING GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS” that is basically an updating of the paper presented in Kyoto. Also several posters explaining what INSC is and introducing our publications “A Vision for the Second Fifty Years of Nuclear Energy ” and “Worldwide Integrated View on Main Nuclear Energy Issues ” were mailed to Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN) for their exhibition and distribution. We wish to thank AATN for the friendly collaboration offered to us.

INSC Action Plan for 1997 – 1998

As was agreed upon by the Council representatives and successfully executed by the Task Groups’ members, the INSC Action Plan for 1997 – 1998 book “Worldwide Integrated View on Main Nuclear Energy Issues” incorporating the seven papers elaborated over two years, 1997 and 1998, was presented in Nice last October in a Special Session performed in conjunction with ENC’98.

For this two-year term, eight subjects of great interest regarding nuclear energy have been discussed:

  • Nuclear Safety
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation
  • Nuclear Role in Coming Future
  • Public Acceptance
  • Radioactive Waste
  • Risk
  • Low Doses
  • Young Generation Issues.