Statement – COP3 on Reducing CO2 Emission (Annex XII)

A statement to the COP3 by the INSC
(October, 1997)

The International Nuclear Societies Council believes that the world’s capacity for generating electricity from nuclear power must be increased substantially, if we are to meet the ambitious targets for reducing global emissions of carbon dioxide.
A central tenet of the Third Conference of the Parties (COP3), to be held in Kyoto in December 1997, is that carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels may cause changes in the earthÕs climate. An objective of the Conference will be to set limits on the emissions of carbon dioxide.

Little progress has been made in meeting the target of the Rio Accord of 1992 to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels. The trends over the last 30 years show that, while there have been increases in emissions from the US and other OECD countries, most of the increase has occurred in the developing world, as those countries strive to develop market economies and raise their standards of living (Table 1). Over the period 1990 – 1995, this large increase was offset by a reduction in emissions from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and the Eastern European countries, because their economies slowed dramatically as they began to adapt to market-driven economies. With this phase ending, it is to be expected that there will be no further decreases in their emissions, and there may well be increases, as their economies start to grow again. Today, about one quarter of the carbon dioxide emissions comes from the US, one quarter from the rest of the OECD, and half from the rest of the world.

It is now generally accepted that the global energy demand will increase by two to three times by the middle of the next century. Energy demand in the developing countries is growing by over 4% per year and alreadyaccounts for over 30% of the global total. Its growth is likely to continue at a much higher rate than in the OECD countries.

With these patterns of growth, reductions of 20% in emissions from the OECD countries will not achieve a global reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. For example, if the OECD countries were to reduce emissions by 20%, and if the developing countries were to maintain their economic development with emissions following the trends of recent years, then the resulting global emissions in 2015 would be 30% higher than in 1995.

Thus energy conservation programs in the countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), while highly desirable, are by no means sufficient. Furthermore, the major gains in energy efficiency during the 1970s and 1980s have already attacked the easy targets; further gains will be more difficult and costly. To have any real impact on global carbon dioxide emissions, the principal emphasis must be on energy sources other than fossil fuels.

Renewable energy sources can contribute to the solution. The only commercial large scale renewable energy in use is hydroelectric power, which today contributes about 3% of the global energy supply. It could be expanded to replace about 3% of the additional energy demand, if all potential rivers were developed. However, this does not seem likely, given concern in many countries over the environmental impact of new hydroelectric development. In any event, the additional energy provided would have little influence on the total energy picture. No other renewable energies have yet demonstrated commercially economic and reliable energy production on a large scale, and today they have no measurable contribution to the global energy supply. Even with large government development and operating subsidies, it is doubtful that these could provide even 10% of the energy supply within two decades.

Nuclear power is the only sustainable energy option available today that can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. After several decades of development by governments and investment by electric utilities, it currently provides about 7% of the worldÕs energy supply. Nuclear power is a zero-carbon energy source that is commercially proven, safe in operation, does not produce other greenhouse gases, and contains its waste products. The technology for permanent disposal of waste is already well advanced and needs firm political action to put it into operation. By using demonstrated technologies, nuclear fuel reserves in nature can be extended for centuries of operation. An important feature of nuclear power is that the cost of fuel and operation is relatively small compared with capital cost. Thus, once built, nuclear power plants produce electricity at a cost that is relatively insensitive to inflation or the fluctuations of prices on the world energy market.

However, neither the renewable energy technologies nor new nuclear power plants can compete economically with pipeline natural gas at current prices, wherever it is readily available. In both cases, the initial capital cost is too high.

Thus, radical measures will be needed, if the objective truly is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. These measures must be undertaken in the context that a moral priority for the coming century will be to help all countries achieve a reasonable standard of living. To do this, the developing countries must industrialize to generate enough wealth to support a higher standard of living, which in the long term will reduce their rate of population growth. This is the only solution that has been demonstrated to stabilize population growth.

Given all these factors, and the global thrust to market economies, the only practical strategies available to governments in their initiative to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are to impose taxes on the emissions, or to provide subsidies for energy produced from non-fossil resources, or a combination of these measures.

Thus, the International Nuclear Societies Council believes that governments should acknowledge the significant impact that nuclear power has played in limiting global carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, to minimize future emissions, governments should:

continue to strive for increased efficiency of energy use
encourage the use of renewable energies, where they can be shown to be economically beneficial and environmentally acceptable
strongly encourage the continued operation of existing nuclear power plants and facilitate the extension of their operating life
support the development and deployment of new, optimized, cost competitive nuclear power plants
consider taxes on carbon dioxide emissions, and subsidies to energy options that do not emit carbon dioxide.

Billion Tonnes Carbon

Rest of World0.

All numbers for carbon dioxide emissions are derived from the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 1996


Press Release – 50-Years Vision Study (Annex XI)


Press Release

(April 4, 1996)


Based on information from the World Energy Council and other international organizations, the International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) has just issued a 3-years study titled “A Vision for the Second Fifty Years of Nuclear Energy”, which concludes that nuclear science and technology will become commonly accepted in the next century. Not only will nuclear technology be essential in providing energy, its use will continue to grow rapidly in health care, in the food industry and in the manufacturing industries.

The International Nuclear Societies Council is a world-wide organization representing 50,000 professional members from 37 nuclear societies. The study was completed by an international committee of the INSC made up of experts from Nuclear Societies of Europe, North America, the Far East and Latin America.

In fifty years, there will be twice as many people on the planet, with most of the growth in the developing countries. As all nations will strive to provide its citizens a quality of life closer to that of those who live in the industrialized countries, the world will need substantially more energy. Global energy demand will more than double over the next 50 years. Fossil fuels, which today make up 80% of the world’s energy supply, will likely be constrained by environmental concerns over global warming. Nevertheless, the large growth in the use of fossil fuels and in the emission of carbon dioxide is likely to continue. Even with major expansions in the use of hydroelectric power and other renewable energies, there will still be a shortfall, and the only other energy option available to fill the gap is nuclear energy. With technology available today, there will be ample uranium and thorium for nuclear energy to fill such energy demand.

The use of nuclear science and technology in the health care field will continue to grow as society demands more efficient diagnosis and treatment, at lower costs. Nuclear science will be used more and more in imaging to determine the source and extent of medical problems. Radiation sterilization of medical supplies will become universal.

Much of the world’s malnutrition can be attributed to loss of existing food by insect infestation, bacterial decay and spoilage. Irradiation is a proven method of solving these problems. In fifty years, irradiation of many foods will likely be considered as necessary and desirable to the consumer as is pasteurization of milk today.

Of all these applications of nuclear technology, the supply of energy is central, and will require the largest investments in financial and human resources. The INSC study therefore examines the strategies that will be needed to achieve the vision. It describes the evolution underway in the design, construction and operation of current types of nuclear power plants. Continuing cost reductions will ensure that nuclear power remains competitive with the fossil fuels, particularly coal and low-cost pipeline natural gas. A Henry Ford type of approach to the supply of new nuclear power plants will be needed to bring the costs down substantially.

By the middle of the next century, the demand for energy, combined with concerns over global warming, may make recycling an economically attractive option. Fast reactors offer the promise of breeding – recycling nuclear fuel to convert essentially all of the available uranium into energy. This is the strategic importance of the fast reactor. Ultimately, the full recycle of uranium with plutonium in fast reactors can offer the assurance of sustainable and economic nuclear fuel supply for centuries to come.

The study makes clear that nuclear science and technology can and will make significant contributions to the sustainable development and well-being of all humankind.

The INSC Committee which prepared the study was chaired by Masao Hori of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The study was edited by Stanley R. Hatcher of the Canadian Nuclear Society, and published by the American Nuclear Society.

For further information, contact either the INSC:

Mr. Jorge Spitalnik
Secretary INSC
c/o Latin American Section of ANS
Rua Mena Barreto, 42 / 5th Floor
Rio de Janeiro 22271-100
Phone: (55) 21 536-2746
Fax: (55) 21 537-9000
e-mail: Mr. Yuzo Endo
INSC Secretariat
c/o Atomic Energy of Japan
1-1-13 Shimbashi, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105
Phone: (81) 3 3508 1261
Fax: (81) 3 3581 6128
or the publisher:
or the Member Societies of INSC:

Publication Department
American Nuclear Society
555 North Kensington Avenue
La Grange Park, IL 60525-5592 USA
Phone: (1) 708 579-8200
Fax: (1) 708 579-8295







Austrian Nuclear Society, Belgian Nuclear Society, British Nuclear Energy Society, Bulgarian Nuclear Society, Coordinated Committee of Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies, Croatian Nuclear Society, Danish Nuclear Society, ETAN Nuclear Division, Finnish Nuclear Society, French Section of ANS, French Nuclear Society, German Nuclear Society, Hellenic Nuclear Society, Hungarian Nuclear Society, The Institution of Nuclear Engineers, Italian Nuclear Society, Italian Local Section of ANS, Netherlands Nuclear Society, Nuclear Society of Russia, Nuclear Society of Slovenia, Polish Nuclear Society, Romanian Nuclear Energy Professional Organization, Spanish Nuclear Society, Swedish Nuclear Society, Swiss Nuclear Society.








Views – Nuclear Safety Convention (Annex X)


(October 2, 1994)

The INSC wishes to present to the IAEA, that will provide the secretariat for the meetings of the Contracting Parties, some suggestions related to the process for reviewing the reports on the measures taken by each Contracting Party to implement its obligations of the Convention. In writing these suggestions, the INSC made a large use of the clarification document attached to the Convention .

Suggestions for the Review Process

The reports submitted pursuant to Article 5 of the Convention will hereinafter be referred to as “the national reports”. The process for reviewing them, under Article 22, will be established by the Contracting Parties at the preparatory meeting held pursuant to Article 21; this process will be hereinafter referred as to “the review process”.

The INSC has examined two steps in the review process:

Step 1: The preparation of the national reports

Step 2: The review meetings of the Contracting Parties (Article 20), hereinafter referred as to “the review meetings”.

Step 1: The national reports will be prepared under the sole responsibility of the member States. Their form, structure and date of submission will follow the guidelines and directives established by the Contracting Parties (Article 22). The INSC suggests that:

The national reports should, as applicable, address separately each obligation of the Convention, and demonstrate how it has been met, with specific reference to – inter alia – legislation, procedures and design criteria.

When a national report states that a particular obligation has not been met, that report should also state what measures are being taken or planned to meet that obligation.

Each national report should include, when applicable, the response of the Contracting Party to conclusions and recommendations of the previous review meetings.

The national report should make reference inter alia to the results of recognized international peer review mechanisms such as IAEA, OECD/NEA and WANO services, when available.

Before submission to the Convention review process, the national reports may be reviewed, under national responsibility, by experts independent from the regulatory and operating organizations; the results of the review would be attached to the national report. When a Contracting Party cannot rely upon an existing national group of recognized experts, it should be able to request the assistance of international experts selected from a list endorsed by the Contracting Parties.

The INSC considers that the preparatory meeting (Article 21) could recommend that all national reports should be reviewed by international experts before submission to the Convention process. A list of recognized experts would have to be endorsed by the preparatory meeting and made available to each Contracting Party. The INSC could provide in due time suitable lists of experts from all over the world, kept up-to-date.

Prior to the review meetings, each Contracting Party will have to analyze the national reports from other Contracting Parties. If it needs the assistance of experts for this task, the Contracting Party could use that same list of international experts.

Step 2: Under Article 20, sub-groups may function during the review meetings, and each Contracting Party shall have a reasonable opportunity to seek clarification of the national reports. The INSC suggests that the review meetings should be organized in the following way:

The first part of the meeting would be devoted to a plenary discussion of the national reports with the main purpose of clarification; there would be no official record of the discussions.

In the second part, the meeting would split into sub-groups, each group examining a topical area; the list of the areas, and the names of the corresponding chairpersons of the sub-groups, will have been selected at the previous review meeting, and, for the first meeting, at the preparatory meeting (Article 21), by the Contracting Parties. The purpose of a sub-group meeting would be the review of all national reports in its topical area.

In each sub-group, experts would identify problems, concerns, uncertainties, or omissions in national reports, focusing on the most significant concerns, in order to ensure efficient and fruitful debate. Experts would be selected by a steering committee composed of the chairperson of the meeting and the assembly of all sub-group chairpersons.

Representatives of the Contracting Parties would have the possibility to ask questions about the treatment of relevant safety questions in other national reports and to summarize their views based upon the work done before the meeting for examination of other national reports.

The chairperson of each group would produce a summary document dealing with the safety issues raised during the discussions, without specifying individual countries.

The last part of the meeting would be plenary; the conclusions of all sub-groups would be presented, and a document available to the public would be adopted by consensus (Article 25). The topical areas for the next meeting would be selected, and the chairpersons of the meeting and the sub-groups designated; they would constitute the steering committee of the next meeting.

The effectiveness of the suggested review process will rest upon the quality and competence of recognized safety experts. The INSC reiterates its proposal to provide the Contracting Parties with lists of experts from all over the world, with due consideration to the geographical distribution of the Contracting Parties, and to keep them up-to-date.


INSC Award (Annex IX)


(Approved May 1, 1994)

The International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) in the desire to promote recognition of noteworthy innovative efforts in the interests of safe and economically responsible peaceful application of nuclear technology herewith creates the


to honor an individual or program group whose international professional efforts in developing nuclear technology utilization in a sustainable manner for the welfare of society are in accordance with the principles of the INSC Global Creed. These efforts should be conducted such that the enhancement of public health and safety and environmental protection is integral and essential to the activity.

The AWARD will be given by the INSC to a person or to a specific project team of persons exclusively on the merit of their contributions regardless of nationality, domicile, language, religion, or sex.

The AWARD may be presented each year at an appropriate General Meeting of an INSC member Society or at an International Meeting of two or more INSC member Societies. The rotation of the ceremonies at which the presentation of the AWARD is made among the INSC member Societies is encouraged but is not mandatory.

The INSC Council Chairman will request the timely nomination of suitable candidates from the INSC member Societies. The Winner of the AWARD will be selected by the INSC from lists of candidates submitted by member Societies of INSC. Each member Society will identify its nominees as appropriate to its By-Laws and Procedures. Each member Society may submit up to two individual or project team candidates. Unsuccessful candidates must be renominated to be reconsidered.

The lists of candidates must be submitted to the INSC at least six months prior to the conference at which the AWARD is to be given. Following a review and subsequent recommendation by a special committee of the Council, the Winner of the AWARD should be selected by the INSC council a minimum of three months prior to the meeting at which the presentation is made. The INSC member Society that nominated the Winner will be notified in writing immediately.

The AWARD may not be given to more than one person or specific project team at a time. The INSC may abstain from selecting a winner in any year.

The AWARD consists of a suitable bronze figure and a framed certificate.

The INSC will be responsible for:

assuring the agreement and presence of the Winner of the AWARD,

preparing the bronze figure,

conducting the AWARD recognition ceremony.

The AWARD will be given by the Chairman of the INSC, or in the event of his or her absence, by one of the Vice-Chairmen of the INSC.

The INSC will bear the costs arising from the administration of this AWARD. The costs of the recognition ceremony will be borne by the hosting member Society. Travel expenses for the Winner of the AWARD will be borne by the member Society that nominated the Winner.

Modifications to these agreements have to be done in writing and have to be duly signed by representatives of the INSC and the member Societies.


Statement – Peaceful Application of Nuclear Technology (Annex VIII)


(April 9, 1995)

The International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) representing 50,000 nuclear professionals in 46 societies around the world is dedicated to ensure nuclear power is utilized for peaceful uses.

In this context, initiatives taken to promote such peaceful uses by other organizations are strongly supported by the INSC.

The INSC fulfills this role by its professionals working to the following Global Creed:

Nuclear Professionals should uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of their profession by:

Promoting the involvement of Societies and professionals worldwide in the quest of excellence and quality in the application of nuclear science and technology for the service of humanity.

Promoting the use of their knowledge and skills for the enhancement of human welfare by furthering public health and safety and environmental protection in the implementation of nuclear projects and programs.

Enhancing the peaceful uses and application of nuclear science and technology.

Ensuring the public is informed of the facts surrounding nuclear science and technology in an objective and truthful manner.


Declaration – Nuclear Science/Technology for Sustainable Development (Annex VII)


on behalf of the Nuclear Scientists and Technologists of the World

as presented by their leadership in International Nuclear Societies – 1994

The continued growth of the world population and the need to achieve an acceptable and equitable global quality of life is placing great pressures on the world’s natural resources of energy, air, water, land and biota. We, the undersigned, are fully supportive of the concept of global sustainable development.

We believe that, as citizens, it is essential also to address the sustainable development of the wold’s resources from a global perspective in terms of energy supply.

We believe that all energy sources: nuclear, fossil, hydroelectric, solar, wind, and others, will be needed to meet the energy requirements for the increasing world population.

We believe that energy should be derived from a variety of sources depending upon the application and the location of the need; that the source should be selected on the basis of rational assessment of the use of resources, the effect on the environment, and the economic considerations. We believe that such an assessment would lead naturally to the inclusion of nuclear power as part of the mix of energy supply sources.

We believe that the separation of fission product waste, and the recycle of remaining energy resources, from ‘spent’ nuclear fuel is an option that can be considered in reducing high-level waste and in managing resources.

We believe also that, beyond sustainable energy production, the use of radiation in medecine, manufacturing processes, agriculture, transport, scientific research, and food production, offers the ability to significantly improve the quality of life while reducing adverse effects on the environment and preserving valuable resources.


Illegal Trade of Fissile Materials (Annex VI)


(October 2,1994)

The International Nuclear Society Council (INSC) is an organization whose member societies represent more than 50,000 nuclear professionals around the world and is dedicated to the principle that the nuclear professional has an overall responsibility for nuclear safety. Therefore, the Council is alert to any lapse in the global nuclear safety structure. In that respect, the INSC is most concerned about the apparent breakdown in security measures that has resulted in the recent uncontrolled availability of fissile materials.

The Council views a correction of this problem to be of paramount urgency. It is encouraged to see the rapid reaction of involved governments and international agencies in apprehending the material. Furthermore, the INSC recognizes immediate international efforts to correct the breach of security.

The Council stresses the significance of nuclear materials control and urges governments to pay serious attention to the management of fissile materials and the importance of the responsibilities resting on the individuals involved in such management.

The Council further recommends to its member societies that they should stress to the relevant authorities the need to discourage unethical actions leading to unauthorized transfer of fissile materials.


Nuclear Energy Role (Annex V)



(Distributed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992)

The International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) is composed of learned nuclear societies working with global co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, for the benefit of mankind in a manner in which the public health and safety, and environmental protection, are paramount.

In 1990, learned nuclear societies of four geographical regions of the world, namely:

North America

Central and South America


East Asia

as well as an at-large region, founded INSC.

The member societies of INSC today have a total of more than 40,000 members who are scientists, engineers, technicians, and specialists with a major interest in the development of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The best expression to date of their opinion about nuclear energy in the 21st century is hereby appended:

There is a growing global consensus on the need for sustainable development. Adequate energy supply is critical for emerging economies to develop and for industrialized economies to support the legitimate needs of their societies. Energy in the form of electric power is essential to improve efficiency, develop conservation technologies, recover, recycle and properly dispose of wastes, and minimize environmental pollution. Nuclear energy can play a vitally needed role in meeting future electricity needs.

Electricity generated from nuclear fission energy has been evaluated in more depth than any other energy source. Licensed nuclear power plants, designed to established standards and operated by qualified personnel, have amassed a safety record unmatched by any alternative energy source. The accident at Chernobyl was indeed serious. Important safety features required by Western safety standards, including a pressure-resistant containment building, are not present in the Chernobyl-type plants. All new designs must meet stringent safety standards, and international efforts are proving successful in instilling a safety culture and management controls to all operating plants.

With the exception of those regions where more hydroelectric power is available, nuclear energy is the only large-scale source of base-load power that produces no sulfur oxides, no acid rain and no carbon dioxide emissions. It does produce radioactive wastes. These are sufficiently concentrated that it is worth the effort and cost to confine them and dispose of them in permanent repositories, and thereby keep them out of the environment forever.

Wastes already exist from more than thirty years of commercial nuclear electricity production. The technology for safe disposal is well understood, and is being pursued in a number of nations. High-level wastes are concentrated, carefully handled, and are being stored safely. The major nuclear nations have plans for permanent disposal facilities. It is the obligation of the current generation to dispose of them safely and permanently. The proper test for any repository is safety, and not its location relative to state or national borders.

No claims are made that nuclear power is the only answer to electricity needs. Nuclear plants provide base-load power, day and night, while peak loads can be met by natural gas and even oil. Alternative energy sources: solar, wind, geothermal and hydro, should be used whenever they are available. Choices for future plants need to be based not only on the cost of production, but also on environmental impacts. In some nations, attempts are being made to estimate and internalize environmental costs into the calculated costs of production.

Energy conservation programs can lower demand growth rates, and delay for a few years perhaps, but not eliminate, the need for new power plants.

The record around the world shows that nuclear plants can compete effectively with coal and other alternative sources. They provide diversity of supply, and in some nations are of critical importance in reducing the need for imported oil and liquified natural gas. Reliability records are improving each year. New plants are currently under construction in France, Japan, China, Korea, Brazil and Romania.

Uranium resources are abundant and fuel supplies are economical at this time. Recycling of plutonium will help to keep nuclear fuel prices down and extend the natural uranium resource well into the 21st century. Ultimately, breeder reactors will be able to produce enough new plutonium to assure sufficient nuclear fuel supply for future centuries.

The commercial nuclear electric power fuel cycle is not a logical or effective pathway to nuclear weapons. Systems of safeguards under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreements have proven successful in assuring that diversion of plutonium has not taken place. Experience has shown that accurate inventories of critical materials can be maintained.

The major weapon states are IAEA signatories and have put their commercial fuel cycles under IAEA safeguards. Most non-weapons states have accepted full-scope safeguards, committing themselves to having no national program to develop nuclear weapons. It is of critical importance to bring the remaining nations into IAEA agreements.

The sad experience with Iraq proves that if a nation is determined to acquire nuclear weapons, it will not depend on the nuclear power fuel cycle. Iraq’s weapons facilities were totally clandestine. It had no nuclear power plants.

Nuclear energy is a safe and environmentally acceptable source for base-load electricity generation. Because radioactive wastes already exist, facilities must be built for their ultimate disposal. Commercial nuclear power under IAEA safeguards is not a realistic pathway to nuclear weapons. Therefore, decisions affecting the extent of nuclear power’s future role will likely depend on economics, diversity of fuel supply and environmental considerations.

Electricity will help build a clean energy base upon which sustainable future development will be based. As other energy sources become practical, they can join fossil fuels and nuclear energy to sustain a diverse base of energy


Global Creed (Annex IV)


(Approved June 20, 1993)

Nuclear Professionals should uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of their profession by:

Promoting the involvement of Societies and professionals worldwide in the quest of excellence and quality in the application of nuclear science and technology for the service of humanity.

Promoting the use of their knowledge and skills for the enhancement of human welfare by furthering public health and safety and environmental protection in the implementation of nuclear projects and programs.

Enhancing the peaceful uses and application of nuclear science and technology.

Ensuring the public is informed of the facts surrounding nuclear science and technology in an objective and truthful manner.



Asociacióî Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN)

Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear (ABEN)

American Nuclear Society (ANS)

Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ)

Australian Nuclear Association (ANA)

Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS)

European Nuclear Society (ENS)

Israel Nuclear Society (INS)

Korea Nuclear Society (KNS)

Latin American Section of ANS (LAS)

Nuclear Energy Society, China, Taipei (NEST)

Nuclear Society of Russia

Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana (SNM)


Membership Guidelines (Annex III)


(Approved October 2, 1994)

Members of INSC shall comply with the “Criteria for Membership” as approved in INSC Meeting 02-91 of 10 November 1991.

A Nuclear Society Member can be either a National or an International Organization within a region as defined by the INSC Bylaws.

A Section, a Branch or any other subdivision of a Nuclear Society Member, may not become a member of INSC if its geographical jurisdiction lies in the same region of the Society Member.

INSC Charter organizations are members of INSC in their own right.

A Federation of Nuclear Societies may become a member of INSC if the geographical area covered by the Federation lies within a region as defined in the INSC Bylaws. Member societies of a INSC Federation Member may not become individual members of INSC. With the exception of Charter organizations as stated in item 4, Nuclear Societies that were individual Members of INSC prior to the INSC membership of a Federation of Nuclear Socities, shall lose their INSC Member condition upon joining such Federation.

The distribution of unoccupied seats in a given region shall be agreed upon by the Members of such region, provided that at least each Member of the region has one seat. If agreement cannot be reached by consensus of the members of the region, INSC shall distribute the unoccupied seats among the members of the region by majority vote of the Council, upon proposal submitted by the INSC Officers. In this case, seats allocated by the Council shall be vacated as soon as the application by a new Nuclear Society of the region is approved.

INSC Member Societies in the “at-large” region can apply for the creation of a new region, provided they belong to a determined geographical area. A minimum of three “at-large” members are required for such an application be considered by the INSC Chairman. The Council shall approve by majority vote a proposal on this matter put up by the INSC Officers. Under this situation, during a two years period, item 6 above shall not apply for the completion of unoccupied seats in the newly created region.

Additional provision

(Approved October 29, 1995)

(To be applied in cases not foreseen in previous paragraphs 1 to 7 and not to modify the status of vote rights of October 1995).

  1. More than one national nuclear society within the same country may become an INSC Society Member provided that the new member(s) is(are) admitted in the “at-large” region if no vacant seat(s) is(are) available within the geographical region being considered. To reflect the position of the majority of their combined membership, INSC Member Societies of the same country shall reach previous agreement to have a common position on INSC voting issues subject to the rule that the country in question must be represented by just one vote in the Council..